“The solution in Idlib is for the (Syrian) regime to stop its hostility and withdraw to the borders in the agreements. Otherwise, we will do so by the end of February,” Erdogan said. The ceasefire came after Russian President Vladimir Putin and his Turkish counterpart Recep Tayyip Erdogan agreed last week in Moscow to end an offensive launched last year by the Syrian government to recapture Idlib province, the last major rebel stronghold in the war-torn country. As part of the agreement between the two leaders, Russian and Turkish forces will begin joint patrols on a major Idlib highway. First, it did not oblige the regime to abandon the territory conquered since last year and to retreat to the lines set by the Sochi agreement of September 2018 – which Turkey had repeatedly demanded. Instead, it has legitimized the new “reality” on the ground – that is, the territorial gains that Syrian regime forces and allied militias have been able to achieve since December. When the humanitarian situation deteriorated in Idlib, where nearly 3 million people lived before the government offensive, several other ceasefire agreements were reached, but none were successful. “I hope that these agreements will serve as the basis for stopping military activities in the Idlib de-escalation zone (and) will put an end to the suffering of peaceful populations and the growing humanitarian crisis,” Putin said. In September 2018, Russia and Turkey agreed on an agreement that had postponed a planned Syrian regime offensive on Idlib and other areas near the Turkish border. Although years of discussions on Syria have resulted in various agreements, many complaints have also been filed about violations.

Russia claims that Turkey failed to “neutralize” al-Qaeda-affiliated groups among the rebels, while Turkey claims that Russia has targeted civilians. Russia had already offered Turkey control of an area within Idlib, but it was much smaller than Turkey would have liked. The March 5 agreement is likely to follow the fate of all previous Idlib agreements and will soon disintegrate. The agreement would effectively preserve some of the territorial gains made by Russian-backed Syrian forces during a three-month offensive in Idlib, the country`s last rebel stronghold, while keeping a Turkish foothold in the region. The United Arab Emirates and Russia supported the Haftar camp in Libya against the Turkish-backed GNA government. [146] The United Arab Emirates has also funded Kurdish forces, including many separatist groups, against Turkey. [147] When the peace agreement between Israel and the United Arab Emirates was signed in 2020 in Washington D.C, Russia implicitly supported Israel and the United Arab Emirates` attempt to normalize bilateral relations, while Turkey threatened to sever relations with Israel and the United Arab Emirates. [148] This situation was aggravated during the Karabakh conflict in September 2020, when the United Arab Emirates tacitly supported Armenia against Turkey and Azerbaijan. [149] Previously, the United Arab Emirates had announced that it was beginning to recognize the Armenian genocide. [150] The Emirate of Abu Dhabi was the first emirate to recognize the genocide in April 2019.

[151] The foreign ministers of Russia and Turkey said that Thursday`s agreement was a ceasefire that would be implemented from midnight along existing battle lines.

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